EU-MACS Coordinator: Prof. Adriaan Perrels,
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What kind of climate services are on offer?

  1. A part of the climate information is free, and a part of it is accessibly organized in national and European climate information portals. The Copernicus Climate Change Services data store offers large amounts of high-quality climate data of which selection and processing requires however high levels of expertise.
  2. Instead you may want to get tailored data or indicators. In many cases, it will be advisable to get first consulted on making choices in conjunction with devising a climate risk strategy including its information need.
  3. Some climate services are subscription based (semi)automated deliveries …. or than again co-design of a climate service may be your way forward, after having devised a climate strategy
  4. There is information about past and current climate, which can inform you about current frequencies, levels, and probabilities of extremes for a certain area and time span or season; there are also forward looking climate services, notably:

a. Seasonal products – projections about deviations in temperature and precipitation in a region for a number of months ahead (as basis for assessing risks of droughts, surplus water, growing seasons, hydro reservoir filling rates, tourist behavior, etc.) .. also indications for hurricane intensity, and monsoon outlooks, under this category, – from these basic meteorological products also impact models can be produced

impacts can be expressed in physical terms (e.g. number of houses exposed to flooding risk, expected yield per ha) or in economic terms (expected damage cost, expected change in visitor level, etc.) often with map visualization – one step further goes e.g. catastrophe modeling aimed to capture certain hazard behavior and related risk pricing

evidence on prediction performance accumulates in a few years, so for verified products the potential benefits of use can be assessed

b. Adaptation oriented products – based on projections of climatological conditions for some to many decades ahead at different spatial and temporal scales (local, regional ,..; annual, monthly, ..) .. on top of these projections model based assessments of impacts and adaptations plans can be used; in contrast to seasonal models adaptation oriented products will often work with scenarios, showing spread in results and in alternative ways to cope with risks

instead of single impacts usually a plethora of initial and follow-up impacts are assessed and (also) expressed in economic terms;

impact propagation models for asset prices are still very uncommon – with the exception of hazard impact evaluations for real estate value